Quality of Service for MANET based Smart cities

ABSTRACT

In the past decade’s digital revolution has caused major breakthroughs in integrated communication technologies field and has changed the way people work, communicate and live. Cities are moving from static infrastructure and buildings to dynamic smart ecosystems known as smart cities. Smart city refers to urban development in various domains of the city like transport, healthcare, home, buildings etc. by using various technology and communication services. As the systems in smart city are heterogeneous, highly mobile, pass large number of messages, MANETS have specific characteristics that can satisfy these requirements. Smart city applications require high reliability, bandwidth, delay and loss of packets should be reduced. Therefore, providing Quality of service (QoS) in such applications is vital. This paper contains a literature review on QoS and network architecture for smart cities, challenges in providing QoS for applications like healthcare.

INTRODUCTION

Smart city refers to the urban development vision to Integrated Communication Technology and Internet of Things (Iota) and multiple information in a secure way to manage city’s assets which includes transport, hospital, waste management, water management etc. and other communication services. Idea behind building the smart city is for improving the quality of life by making use of urban technologies for improving the efficiency of services and fulfill citizen’s needs. By Integrating sensors with real time monitoring, the data are collected from the surrounding, processed and analyzed. As sensors and actuators have low cost, it is used in smart cities. Information and communication technology is used for reducing the resource consumption, reducing cost, to enhance quality, interactivity between services and performance. For e.g. in a health sector, communication technologies are made use to connect the location of the patient, medication and health statistics and provide it to the patient’s health care professional.

Some of the customized services in smart city are in case of vehicle, by combing the sensor data driver health parameters on driving conditions is measured. By combining the health parameters such as heart rate and blood pressure with the vehicle status will help the driver to measure the real time health condition and will help to create safe environment for the drivers.

In achieving the smart city concept communication medium plays an important role. Existing communication devices used in smart city are LTE, Wi-Max, Wi-Fi, CATV and satellite medium. The smart city operates in the complex urban environment consisting of several complex infrastructures, technology, human behavior, political and social structures. By deploying the low cost, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in smart environments have lot of new opportunities. MANET and WSN convergence leads to the development of new IOT communication platform with a potential of applications in various domains. As the mobility of the nodes should be supported in smart cities, MANETS are used in smart cities. In MANET, routes are configured repeatedly and this work is done by all the nodes in the network and it does not have a central controller. MANETS have no infrastructure support, the nodes are configured automatically, and they are fault tolerant, and support mobile devices. All these characteristics can be used for building a MANET based smart city. Providing real time data transmission is another challenging task in MANET. Integrated environments with different types of services need QoS to provide different resources availability depending on their relative importance. Since the smart cities include humans, context information should be considered e.g. location. In health care applications where the quality of life is involved, delay, loss of packets, and bandwidth should be reduced. Context aware QoS support should be given for smart cities.

There are a lot of research work going on regarding the issues in providing the QoS in smart cities and various architectures are proposed. Some of the issues are continuous changes in network topology, area covered, mobility, end to end delay etc. A new approach called “human as a sensor” is presented where humans are used to collect, analyze and communicate the data.

 The literature review in this paper is about various QoS requirements for the smart city applications and the solutions, network architectures for smart city, issues in providing QoS in MANETS, different routing protocols in smart city. The detailed review is presented in section 2 and conclusion in section 3.

CONCLUSION

Smart city is an emerging concept. MANET can be used in smart cities because it has characteristics that satisfy smart city application requirements. As applications in smart city use context information, providing QoS becomes an essential requirement. There are a lot of issues regarding the QoS support for smart cities. The literature survey carried out in this paper highlights various routing protocols, selfhealing networks in smart cities to recover from link failures, architectures to provide quality of service in smart city and also the challenges in providing QoS in MANETs.